Behavioral Bias Bingo: Trophy Effect

Behavioral Bias Bingo: Trophy Effect

June 17, 2014 Behavioral Finance
Print Friendly
(Last Updated On: January 18, 2017)

Hard work ≠ Value

“Imagine you play in a tennis tournament at your local club. As your opponents are of the same strength as you, playing the matches is hard work. Now imagine you have managed to win the tournament and the prize is a trophy which is sold for 5 € at a local shop. For how much are you willing to sell this trophy? How much might your opponents be willing to pay for this trophy? “

— Christoph Buhren, Marco Pleβner, (2011).

While it may be just a trophy, it may represent much more to you if you went out on the court, sweated and worked hard to “earn” it.

How much?

Well certainly more than  the 5 € you would pay at a store, right? After all, they aren’t handing these trophies out to just anyone.

Conversely, if you went out on the court, sweated and worked hard, but didn’t win the trophy, well then maybe it really is just a trophy after all. If they’re just handing out these trophies willy nilly — basically giving them away — well maybe this trophy worth something less than the 5 € you would pay for it at the store.

It would seem that a form of egotism affects how we value the trophy.

This phenomenon — placing a higher intrinsic value on something when we have worked to earn it — exists in our daily lives, and Buhren and Pleβner prepared a research paper (a copy is here) exploring it in 2011, naming it the “trophy effect”.

Game: Math-test winners can get ball-point pen!

Baseline: In the baseline case, students were given ball-point pens. Some students were told they already owned the pen in front of them and asked what they would sell it for. Other students were told the pen in front of them was offered for sale, and they should specify what they would be willing to pay.

Students who already “owned” the pen were willing to sell it for 2.86 €, while those who did not “own” the pens already but were asked what they would pay responded with a price of 1.00 € .

In this example, we see the “endowment” effect, which describes how we place a higher value on something if we already own it.

Trophy: In the trophy case, students had to complete an elementary mathematics test within 15 minutes. It was brought to their attention that only the best students would be rewarded with a pen afterwards. Those top students, who were rewarded with a pen became “sellers,” while the others, who had not won a pen, became “buyers.”

The results of the experiment, designed by Buhren and Pleβner and discussed in the paper, were surprising.

This time, the “winners,” consisting of those students who had passed the math test to “win” the trophy wanted a lot more, demanding 4.40 € for each pen.

For the “losers,” or those who did not pass the mat test, they decided they would only pay 0.50 € for the pen.

Note that the trophy effect worked both ways, by raising and reducing the pen’s value based on the outcome of the math test — those who worked for the pen wanted more (4.40 €) than when it was simply given to them (2.86 €), and those who failed to win the pen placed even less value on it (0.50 €) than when it was just a pen to be evaluated (1.00 €) in the baseline case.

Applications in Finance:

We have seen, in the examples above, how when we work hard for something, thereby “earning” it, we can ascribe a higher value to it than may be justified. This may hold in financial markets.

Let’s say you own two stocks, Stock A and Stock B, and you need to raise some cash, and must decide which one to sell.

You have worked for many years at Company A, and as a result of your hard work you have earned a large amount of Stock A.

A rich uncle of yours died a few years ago, and in his will gifted you a large block of Stock B.

Which do you sell to raise the cash?

Reference:

Christoph Buhren, Marco Pleβner, (2011), The Trophy Effect, Joint Discussion Paper Series in Economics, ISSN 1867-3678


Note: This site provides no information on our value investing ETFs or our momentum investing ETFs. Please refer to this site.


Join thousands of other readers and subscribe to our blog.


Please remember that past performance is not an indicator of future results. Please read our full disclaimer. The views and opinions expressed herein are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of Alpha Architect, its affiliates or its employees. This material has been provided to you solely for information and educational purposes and does not constitute an offer or solicitation of an offer or any advice or recommendation to purchase any securities or other financial instruments and may not be construed as such. The factual information set forth herein has been obtained or derived from sources believed by the author and Alpha Architect to be reliable but it is not necessarily all-inclusive and is not guaranteed as to its accuracy and is not to be regarded as a representation or warranty, express or implied, as to the information’s accuracy or completeness, nor should the attached information serve as the basis of any investment decision. No part of this material may be reproduced in any form, or referred to in any other publication, without express written permission from Alpha Architect.




About the Author

David Foulke

Mr. Foulke is currently an owner/manager at Tradingfront, Inc., a white-label robo advisor platform. Previously he was a Managing Member of Alpha Architect, a quantitative asset manager. Prior to joining Alpha Architect, he was a Senior Vice President at Pardee Resources Company, a manager of natural resource assets, including investments in mineral rights, timber and renewables. He has also worked in investment banking and capital markets roles within the financial services industry, including at Houlihan Lokey, GE Capital, and Burnham Financial. He also founded two technology companies: E-lingo.com, an internet-based provider of automated translation services, and Stonelocator.com, an online wholesaler of stone and tile. Mr. Foulke received an M.B.A. from The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, and an A.B. from Dartmouth College.